Carrying credentials between environments
This scenario is simplified for purposes of demonstration.
I have 3 machines: A, B, and C. A is my laptop, B is a bastion, and C is a server that I only access through the bastion.
I use an SSH keypair helpfully named AB to get from me@A to me@B. On B, I su to user. I then use an SSH keypair named BC to get from user@B to user@C.
I do not wish to store the BC private key on host B.
SSH Agent Forwarding
I have keys AB and BC on host A, where I start. Host A is running ssh-agent, which is installed by default on most Linux distributions.
me@A$ ssh-add ~/.ssh/AB # Add keypair AB to ssh-agent's keychain me@A$ ssh-add ~/.ssh/BC # Add keypair BC to the keychain me@A$ ssh -A me@B # Forward my ssh-agent
Now I’m logged into host B and have access to the AB and BC keypairs. An attacker who gains access to B after I log out will have no way to steal the BC keypair, unlike what would happen if that keypair was stored on B.
See here for pretty pictures explaining in more detail how agent forwarding works.
Anyways, I could now ssh me@C with no problem. But if I sudo su user, my agent is no longer forwarded, so I can’t then use the key that I added back on A!
Switch user while preserving environment variables
me@B$ sudo -E su user user@B$ sudo -E ssh user@C
The -E flag to sudo preserves the environment variables of the user you’re logged in as. ssh-agent uses a socket whose name is of the form /tmp/ssh-AbCdE/agent.12345 to call back to host A when it’s time to do the handshake involving key BC, and the socket’s name is stored in me‘s SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. So by telling sudo to preserve environment variables when switching user, we allow user to pass ssh handshake stuff back to A, where the BC key is available.
Why is sudo -E required to ssh to C? Because /tmp/sshAbCdE/agent.12345 is owned by me:me, and only the file’s owner may read, write, or execute it. Additionally, the socket itself (agent.12345) is owned by me:me, and is not writable by others.
If you must run ssh on B without sudo, chown -R /tmp/ssh-AbCdE to the user who needs to end up using the socket. Making them world read/writable would allow any user on the system to use any key currently added to the ssh-agent on A, which is a terrible idea.
For what it’s worth, the actual value of /tmp/ssh-AbCdE/agent.12345 is available at any time in this workflow as the result of printenv | grep SSH_AUTH_SOCK | cut -f2 -d =.
Did you see what just happened there? An arbitrary user with sudo on B just gained access to all the keys added to ssh-agent on A. Simon pointed out that the right way address this issue is to use ProxyCommand instead of agent forwarding.
No, I really don’t want my keys accessible on B
See man ssh_config for more of the details on ProxyCommand. In ~/.ssh/config on A, I can put:
Host B User me Hostname 111.222.333.444 Host C User user Hostname 222.333.444.555 Port 2222 ProxyCommand ssh -q -w %h:%p B
So then, on A, I can ssh C and be forwarded through B transparently.